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Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Year: 2008  |  Volume: 2  |  Issue: 5  |  Page No.: 318 - 327

Chronic kidney disease as a cardiovascular risk state and considerations for the use of statins

Peter A. McCullough, Leslie R. Rocher, Ravi Nistala and Adam Whaley-Connell    

Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) creates one of the highest risk atherosclerotic states that can occur in human beings. The use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme reductase inhibitors (statins) has gained widespread acceptance in the general population for the purposes of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and reducing the future risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiac death. In patients with CKD, the balance of benefits and risks of statins appears to be different than that in the general population. Reductions in LDL-C with statins may be associated with a reduced progression of CKD. Importantly, recent studies suggest statins are associated with a reduction in rates of acute kidney injury, mediated by ischemic insults and oxidative stress, after cardiac surgery and exposure to iodinated contrast. A reduction in cardiovascular events with LDL-C reduction in CKD and dialysis patients is yet to be proven. In addition, studies suggest that there are higher adverse drug effects with statins in CKD. This work will address the benefits and risks of this important treatment option for the growing population of patients with CKD, who have not undergone renal transplantation, and are at very high risk of cardiovascular events.

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