Multiply Biomarker in the Analysis of Zinc and Iron in Children in Ceres District of South Africa
The use of various non-invasive and invasive biomarkers has made trace elements analysis more acceptable in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of trace elements (zinc and iron) in children using biomarkers; blood, hair and saliva. Trace element status of first grade learners was assessed in N256 children age 7-9 years, attending six primary schools in Ceres district. The influence of socioeconomic status of parent and growth indexes and other factors like; trace elements in commonly consumed foods, drinkable water and locally cultivated vegetables were also considered. Trace elements been investigated include iron and zinc. There was a significant (p<0.01) presence of trace elements in biomarkers considered; (hair, saliva and blood). The following results were obtained 95% of Hr_Zn 172 mg kg-1 are within reference (150-250 mg kg-1), 85% of Hr_Fe 8.47 mg kg-1 are within reference (6-15 g kg-1), also 52% of Sl_Zn 0.64 mg L-1 is within reference of 0.5-1.20 mg L-1 and 94% of Sl_Fe 1.06 gm L-1 is below reference of 1.52-5.72 mg L-1). Similar results were observed in blood analysis were Sr_ Fe in all parameters was 75% within standard reference and 63% of Sr_Zn are within standard reference. There was no significant correlation between both biomarkers. Comparing both trace elements, there was significant high percentage of both trace element in all parameters (p<0.01), except for Sl_Zn were there was a significant low concentration. The study has shown the presence of these trace elements (iron, zinc) in children hair, saliva and blood and not been influenced by either the socioeconomic status or the Anthropometric data as observed in this survey.
Cited References Fulltext