Endogenous and Exogenous Approaches Towards Kidney Regeneration: A Review
This review focused on our current understanding of the renal adult stem cells and their participation in kidney repair and regeneration. Currently, cells (growing in vitro) are being used as a replacement therapy/regenerative medicine with the great potential to treat kidney failure or other degenerative diseases. Regenerative medicine is now considered of great hope not only to control but also to cure some of the diseases which is otherwise difficult to treat. Recent studies have indicated that adult stem cells, either in the kidney itself or derived from the bone marrow, could participate in this repair process and might therefore be utilized clinically to treat acute renal failure. After renal ischemic injury, there is a upregulation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 expresson found in the kidney, which can induce leukocytosis and kidney repair. Renal stem cells, both from the renal papilla or the CD24+CD133+ cell niche of the Bowmans capsule could differentiate into adult epithelial cells or tubular cells such as podocytes participate in this renal repair. Bone marrow-derived stem cells appeared to have a capacity for transdifferentiation and to be able to replace damaged renal tissue by replacing tubular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, endothelial cells and even podocytes. It is apparent from this review that there is a hidden potential within the kidney as well as in the bone marrow cells to stimulate endogenous or exogenous kidney regeneration. Further it can be speculated that harnessing the potential of these stem cells will go a long way in management and recovery of kidney failure through regenerative medicine approach.
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