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The Journal of Biochemistry
Year: 2010  |  Volume: 148  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 139 - 148

Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase as a regulator of the retinoic acid signalling in melanocytes

K Takeda, N. H Takahashi, M Yoshizawa and S. Shibahara    

Abstract:

Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyses the formation of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and also functions as a transporter for lipophilic ligands, including all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Here, we show that human epidermal melanocytes produce and secrete L-PGDS and PGD2 in culture medium, whereas L-PGDS is not expressed in human melanoma cell lines, HMV-II, SK-MEL-28, 624 mel and G361. Treatment with RA (1 or 10 µM) for 4 days decreased the proliferation of melanocytes (30% decrease), but not melanoma cells. We therefore isolated L-PGDS-expressing cell lines from 624 mel cells. Treatment with RA decreased the proliferation of L-PGDS-expressing cells by 20%, but not mock-transfected cell lines lacking L-PGDS expression. RA induced expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1 in L-PGDS-expressing cells, but not mock-transfected cells. Moreover, RA increased the transient expression of a reporter gene carrying the RA-responsive elements in L-PGDS-expressing cell lines (at least 5-fold activation), compared to the 2-fold activation in mock-transfected cell lines, suggesting that L-PGDS may increase the sensitivity to RA. Lastly, the knockdown of L-PGDS expression by RNA interference was associated with the restoration of the RA-mediated decrease in proliferation of human and mouse melanocytes. In conclusion, L-PGDS may fine-tune the RA signalling in melanocytes.

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