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The Journal of Biochemistry
Year: 2010  |  Volume: 147  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 135 - 141

Generation of a recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) targeting 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine

M Ohshima, T Tadakuma, H Hayashi, K Inoue and K. Itoh    

Abstract:

We generated a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (m5dCyd) using phage display technology. The heavy and light chain variable region genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from hybridoma cell line FMC9 and assembled as an scFv fragment with a flexible linker (Gly4-Ser)3. The scFv DNA fragment was then cloned into pCANTAB-5E, and a phage displaying the scFv was produced. Antigen-positive phage clones were successfully selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The scFv was modified with FLAG and His tags for detection and purification. The scFv reacted strongly with m5dCyd and weakly with 5-methylcytidine (m5Cyd) but not with cytidine (Cyd) and 1-methyladenosine in a manner similar to the monoclonal antibody (MoAb). Although the specificities of scFv and MoAb were almost identical, the sensitivity of the scFv (IC50 0.054 µg/ml) was ~80 times higher than that of the parent MoAb (IC50 4.27 µg/ml), determined by inhibition ELISA. As a biochemical application of this scFv, we quantified the m5dCyd content of genomic DNA by enzymatic hydrolysis using inhibition ELISA. The cancer cell lines HeLa, HeLa S3 and MDA-MB-453 contained ~1% of the methylated DNA in total genomic DNA, as did peripheral blood cell genomic DNA from healthy volunteers, but HT29 and T-47D showed hypomethylation compared with the HeLa, HeLa S3 and MDA-MB-453 cell lines. The scFv generated here may be applicable to the assessment of cellular DNA methylation levels and is more sensitive than the MoAb.

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