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Journal of Applied Sciences
Year: 2016  |  Volume: 16  |  Issue: 10  |  Page No.: 454 - 461

Characterization of Chitosan Extracted from Different Crustacean Shell Wastes

Hala E. Ghannam, Abdelrahman S. Talab, Natalia V. Dolganova, Ahmed M.S. Hussein and Nahed M. Abdelmaguid    

Abstract: Background: Chitosan is basic polysaccharide and partially deacetylated polymer of glucosamine obtained from chitin by alkaline deacetylation. Fish by-products represent a serious threat to environment and disposed of it using simple and inexpensive method are necessary also, the production of natural compounds for food industry used is required. Methodology: Chitosan prepared from shrimp and crayfish have a good physiochemical and functional properties when compared with the commercial chitosan. The study was undertaken to extract chitosan from some crustacean shells (shrimp and crayfish wastes) and characterize them using spectral analysis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) analysis. Moreover, antioxidant activity, moisture, protein, ash, yields, solubility, degree of deacetylation, water and fat binding capacity were also determined and compared the extracted chitosan with commercial type. Results: The study results showed that the extracted chitosan is soluble in 1% acetic acid solution also commercial, shrimp and crayfish chitosan had moisture content (4.1, 0.8 and 1.7), protein (8.5,7.32 and 8.16), ash (1.2, 0.5 and 0.6) and degree of deacetylation (84, 92 and 87), respectively. The FTIR spectra of three chitosan types (commercial, shrimp and crayfish) were observed to have absorption band in the region of (3422.06, 3444.24 and 3446.17 cm–1), respectively which corresponded to the vibrating and of aliphatic O-H and NH stretching vibration of free amino groups. Also, the stretching vibration for glucosamine ring -C-O-C- was indicated by the absorption bands at (1030.77, 1027.87 and 1031.73 cm–1) for the three chitosan types, respectively. Chitosan prepared from shrimp and crayfish have a good physiochemical and functional properties when compared with the commercial chitosan. Also, the antioxidant activity of chitosan gives a great indication for its possible use as natural additives in food industries. The study results are very important to researchers in relevant fields because they can disposed fish wastes in safe method and they can utilized extraction process for producing natural products which can be improve physicochemical, sensorial and shelf life of food products. Conclusion: Chitosan prepared from shrimp and crayfish have a good physiochemical and functional properties when compared with the commercial chitosan. Also, the antioxidant activity of chitosan gives a great indication for its possible use as natural additives in food industries.

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