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International Journal of Tropical Medicine
Year: 2011  |  Volume: 6  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 44 - 51

Anopheles Species Diversity and Breeding Habitat Distribution and the Prospect for Focused Malaria Control in the Western Highlands of Kenya

C.S. Mulambalah, D.N. Siamba, M.M. Ngeiywa and J.M. Vulule    

Abstract: Malaria in the western highlands of Kenya is unpredictable and occurs in form of severe outbreaks and epidemics resulting in loss of life and exerts a strain on public health services. This underlies the continued need for better understanding of the disease determinants to formulate specific and focused intervention strategies. A 1 year study was undertaken in two study sites in Nandi district to determine Anopheles species diversity, abundance and breeding habitat distribution. Indoor and outdoor adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected biweekly from randomly selected houses by pyrethrum spray capture method and light traps, respectively. Anopheles larval stages were collected from breeding sites by standard dippers and reared into adults under laboratory conditions. Adult Anopheles species were identified based on morphological features and sibling species by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was the most prevalent known vector contributing 95.4%, An. funestus and An. arabiensis each 2.3%. All An.gambiae s.l samples were identified by PCR as An. gambiae sensu stricto suggesting that this could be the only sibling species of the An. gambiae complex present in study sites. The epidemiological and public health significance of known malaria vectors and non-vector anopheles species is discussed.

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