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International Journal of Soil Science

Year: 2011  |  Volume: 6  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 34 - 48

Bio-Absorption of Some Heavy Metals by Pleurotus tuber-regium Fr. Singer (An Edible Mushroom) from Crude Oil Polluted Soils Amended with Fertilizers and Cellulosic Wastes

E.M. Ogbo and J.A. Okhuoya

Abstract

In this study, the fate of Pleurotus tuber-regium harvested from crude oil contaminated substrates is investigated with regard to the bio-absorption of heavy metals specifically-Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg and As. The fungus was grown in crude oil contaminated soils amended with poultry litter, NPK-fertilizer, sawdust and shredded banana leaf blades. Harvested fruit bodies were digested with acids and heavy metal content determined. The metallic element content of contaminated soil was low for elements analyzed for with reference to recommended limits for them in normal soils. The only metal that was relatively higher than permissible concentration in soil was chromium. The contaminated soil was deficient of essential metallic elements like Zn, Mn and Cu. There was further reduction of these metallic elements caused by their uptake by the fungus. Cadmium, mercury and arsenic were not detected in the soils and fruit bodies of the mushroom. The transfer of metals from the soils to the mushroom varied with type of metal, its concentration and substrate composition. The transfer factor of the various metals varied from 10.47 in zinc to 0.31 in iron. Fruit bodies from substrates with poultry litter accumulated Fe, Pb and Cr to toxic levels. Mushrooms harvested from crude oil contaminated sites should be analyzed before consumption and properly disposed by incineration or recycling if concentration of metals is too high. The fungus can be used as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution and fungal remediated sites can be augmented with micronutrients.

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