Palm Oil Sludge Fermented by Using Lignocellulolytic Fungi as Poultry Diet
Background: Palm Oil Sludge (POS) represents an alternative to poultry feed but its utilization is limited due to the high content of crude fiber (lignin and cellulose) and low content of crude protein. Fermentation with lignocellulolytic fungi, which include Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, produce ligninase and cellulase enzyme have been used as an approach to increase POS nutrient levels and quality. This study evaluated the nutrient content and quality of POS after fermentation using different ligninocellulolytic fungi. Methodology: Two experiments were conducted in this study. Experiment 1 was performed as a 3×3 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replicates. The first factor was lignocellulolytic fungi (Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and the second factor was incubation time (7, 11 and 15 days). Subsequently, Crude Fiber (CF), Crude Protein (CP), cellulose, lignin and cellulose enzyme activity were measured. Experiment 2 compared the nutrient content of fermented (the best treatment identified in experiment 1) and unfermented POS. In this experiment, the nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestion, Metabolizable Energy (ME) and amino acid profile of POS was measured. Results: In experiment 1, it was found that Pleurotus ostreatus significantly reduced CF, cellulose and lignin levels and increased CP content as well as cellulase enzyme activity after 11 days of incubation (p<0.01) Moreover, experiment 2 showed that nitrogen retention, crude fiber digestion and ME content levels in fermented POS were higher than in unfermented POS. Fermentation also improved the amino acid profile of POS. Conclusion: An 11 day fermentation with Pleurotus ostreatus was identified as the best condition for improving the nutrient content and quality of POS.
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