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International Journal of Poultry Science
Year: 2009  |  Volume: 8  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 151 - 155

Epidemiological Surveillance on Environmental Contaminants in Poultry Farms

S. Essam Soliman, P.G. Reddy, A.A. Mohamed Sobeih, H. Busby and E. Sara Rowe    

Abstract: A total of 416 environmental samples (litter, water, swabs and air) were collected from commercial poultry farms located in Ismailia and Zagazig Governorates during the period January through July of 2008. These samples were tested by conventional cultural methods and then were confirmed biochemically. The bacterial isolates that were identified included: Citrobacter spp., E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aureuginosa, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fecalis and Streptococcus pneumonie. The suspected colonies for Salmonella spp. were cultured onto a selective media (Selenite F broth and S-S agar) for further confirmation. Prevalence and frequencies of the microorganisms were calculated to detect the most predominant microorganisms. Swab samples showed higher prevalence of bacterial isolates (37.7%). Samples collected from closed house system had higher prevalence of bacterial isolates in swab samples (20.5%) as compared to samples from open house system (17.2%). Citrobacter sp (8.3%), Proteus vulgaris (8.3%) and Pseudomonas aureuginosa (16.7%) predominated in litter samples from closed house system. E. coli (35.7%) predominated in air samples of closed house system. Klebsiella oxytoca (10.0%) predominated in water of open house system. Salmonella sp (35%) predominated in swab samples of open house system. Shigella sp prevalence was similar between water samples of opened house system (6.0%) and swab samples of closed system (5.9%). Staphylococcus aureus (50.0%) predominated in air of closed house system. Streptococcus pneumonie (17.8%) predominated in air samples of open house system. Streptococcus fecalis (5.3%) predominated in litter samples of open house system. A total of 266 environmental and non-environmental samples were collected during the period September of 2008 through January of 2009 by the Alabama State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory as part of the National poultry improvement plan. These samples were examined using highly selective media for Salmonella sp The positive samples were confirmed biochemically and sero-grouped. The highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was in environmental swabs (38.6%) with special reference to slat swabs (10.2%), fans (8.1%) and sills (6.9%). The highest predominant group of Salmonella spp. was C3 (50.4%) followed by group B (24.0%) and group C2 (13.9%).

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