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International Journal of Plant Pathology
Year: 2011  |  Volume: 2  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 153 - 164

Differential Effect of Lipoxygenase on Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus spp.

A. Muni Kumari, P. Uma Maheswari Devi and A. Sucharitha    

Abstract: Lipoxygenase (LOX : EC 1.13.11.12) (linoleate : oxygen oxidoreductase) constitute large gene family of non heme iron containing fatty acid dioxygenases. LOXs have been hypothesized to play a role in response to many plant pathogens and significant in plant microbe interactions. Increased LOX activity and rapid lipid peroxidation are a general response to biotic and abiotic stress. The increase in LOX activity has been observed in plant tissue and cells in response to infections with bacteria, fungal and viral pathogens. Plant LOX preferentially introduce molecular oxygen in to linoleic (LA) and Linolenic Acids (ALA) either at C9 (9-LOX) or C13 (13-LOX) of the hydrocarbon backbone of the fatty acid to produce 9S or 13S-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9S- or 13S-HPODE) or 9S- or 13S- hydroperoxy octadecatrienoic acid (9S- or 13S- HPOTE). These hydroperoxides are significant in regulating Aflatoxin (AF)-a toxic secondary metabolite, biosynthesis by fungi, namely Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The 9S-HPODE promotes where as 13S-HPODE, 13S-HPOTE and down stream derivatives of 13S-HPODE as well as 13S-HPOTE inhibits aflatoxin production by A. flavus. Aldehyde products of 13S-HPODE and 13S-HPOTE have been observed to inhibit the germination of A. flavus spores and/or aflatoxin production. The differential expression of LOX and the subsequent effect of LOX metabolites on aflatoxin production in different plant varieties are presented in this review.

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