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International Journal of Pharmacology
Year: 2019  |  Volume: 15  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 336 - 342

Histopathological Effect of Aspartame on Liver and Kidney of Mice

Sara I. Othman and May Bin- Jumah    

Abstract: Background and Objective: Aspartame has been widely used in many low-calorie, non-weight-bearing dietary alternatives, particularly in strategies of physical fitness and health with no or little data about its side effects on human health. Thus in this study, the toxicological effects of aspartame on both the liver and kidneys of female rats were investigated. Methodology: Cytotoxicity of aspartame was investigated histologically by using hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stains. The animals received aspartame in drinking water at a dose of 500 mg kg–1 body for a month. Both liver and kidney tissues were subjected for histological and morphological analysis. Results: In female rats treated with a dose of aspartame of 500 mg kg–1 daily in drinking water a clear toxicological effects on the hepatic tissue were significantly obtained. Significant signs of apoptotic cellular death (necrosis) and intensified of chromatin nuclear condensation with nuclear fragmentation were observed in liver tissue cells following treatment with aspartame. In addition, bleeding, infiltrations, invasion of inflammatory cells and blood bleeding in the inner lining of the central veins of the liver were observed with severe congestion and bleeding in the liver sinuses. Regarding to the kidney tissues, treated with aspartame, shrinkage and disappearance in renal pellets in addition to apoptosis were recorded in kidney tissues compared to control ones. Destruction and bleeding in most renal tissues due to congestion in renal tubules were seen in kidney tissues following treatment with aspartame. Conclusion: Although aspartame may have a positive effect in obesity as low-calorie, non-weight-bearing dietary alternatives, histological analysis proved that it produces severe cellular toxicity especially in liver and kidney. The toxicological effects performed mechanically via inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. The data recommend that using of aspartame should be taken under medical supervision along with natural antioxidants.

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