Silver Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis and Antimicrobial Potentialities
Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal,
In recent years, the ever increasing scientific knowledge and research advancements in science have provided a great awareness regarding the use of nanoparticles (NPs). NPs have drawn the researchers interest to explore new dimensions in biotechnology at large and nanotechnology, in particular, to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and also to present other pharmacological potentialities. Finally, after decades of negligence, the AMR issue has now captured a worldwide attention of the global leaders, public health community, legalization authorities, academia, research-based organizations and medicinal sector of the modern world, alike. The antibiotics utilization has been expedited than ever before driven by increasing access, across the globe. The AMR emergence in microorganisms is considered as a natural phenomenon. However, this health-threatening issue has been driven by those mentioned above faulty human behavior. In this context, metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely used or being engineered with unique potentialities for targetted applications in many fields of medical, engineering and science. Amongst noble metals, the superior attention has been given to silver nanoparticles. Traditionally, different chemical methods have been attempted but criticized due to various biological risks including toxicity that engendered a deep concern to develop some environmental-friendly processes. In this context, biological approaches using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts displayed superiority over chemical and biological methods. These plant-based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assemblage to maintain the suitable size of nanoparticles. This critical review mainly focuses on the utilization of vast diversity of plants in the bio-inspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles as well as their potential applications as novel antimicrobial agents.
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