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International Journal of Pharmacology
Year: 2012  |  Volume: 8  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 169 - 176

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Clozapine and Risperidone Monotherapy on Lipid Profile in Nigerian Patients with Schizophrenia

O.B. Idonije, O.O. Festus, U. Akpamu, O. Okhiai, O.I. Iribhogbe and G.B.S. Iyalomhe    

Abstract: Although antipsychotic drugs are known to have an array of adverse effects, they also exhibit significant differences in causing these effects. The atherogenic effects of clozapine and risperidone have not been fully investigated among schizophrenics in Nigeria hence this research work. This study therefore investigated the extent to which monotherapy with clozapine and risperidone (atypical antipsychotic drugs) influence lipid profile in patients with schizophrenia. The study population comprised 29 Schizophrenic patients from Psychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin city, Nigeria. They were placed on typical antipsychotics for six weeks: 10 patients were on risperidone (1-4 mg day-1 in divided doses) and 19 patients were on clozapine (25-300 mg day-1 in divided doses). The control group comprised 30 apparently healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected from all subjects on the first day before the commencement of treatment with antipsychotic drug and 24 h after the last administration of antipsychotics at the end of week 6 for analyses of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and very low density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) using standard methods. Comparing with the control, the basal serum TC, TG, LDL and VLDL of the clozapine treated group were not significantly different except for HDL which was significantly reduced and the atherogenic indices (TC/HDL and LDL/HDL) which were significantly increased. However the risperidone treatment group showed significantly higher TC, TG, LDL and VLDL levels while HDL was significantly reduced. At the end of week 6, there was significant increase in serum TC, TG, HDL and VLDL and a significant decrease in HDL in both treatment groups compared to the control except VLDL that was not significantly different in the clozapine group. Comparing the two treatment groups, risperidone caused a more significant increase on lipid profile and atherogenic indeces than clozapine. This effect was about two times or greater with risperidone than clozapine. Conclusively, additional prospective clinical trials are required to support a specific therapeutic approach for managing dyslipidaemia that are present in clozapine and risperidone treated schizophrenic patients in an attempt to avoid its consequent adverse effects.

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