A Comprehensive Review of the Shared Roles of Inflammatory Cytokines in Osteoporosis and Cardiovascular Diseases as Two Common Old People Problem; Actions Toward Development of New Drugs
The relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and osteoporosis two common disease in aged people has been theorized since several years ago but many controversies exist yet. In this study, the role of inflammatory cytokines in both diseases has been studied in depth. In the pathophysiology of diseases, estrogen deficiency (in women), oxidative stress, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin D overload, secondary hyperparathyroidism, hyperhomocysteinemia and inflammation play substantial role. Meanwhile, drug therapy of each disease may affect the other one, a spectacle potentiating the common inflammatory link theory. Results of this review indicate that cytokines or proteins such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-11, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferons, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), granulocyte M-CSF (GM-CSF), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), osteonectin, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), transcription factor for osteoblasts differentiation (Runx2), C-reactive protein (CRP), cyclooxygenase (COX), oxidized LDL, paraoxonase, lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin K and platelets are shared in the pathophysiology of both diseases. Accordingly, drugs such as bisphosphonates, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors known as statins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel or ticlopidine and phytoesteroges affect conditions of both diseases. The inflammatory elements sharing in pathogenesis of both CVD and osteoporosis lead us to revise developments of new drugs in this specific area of science that is much relevant to the health of elderly people who are increasing in developed world.
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