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International Journal of Pharmacology
Year: 2011  |  Volume: 7  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 46 - 49

Cost and Utilization Study of Antidotes: An Iranian Experience

Shekoufeh Nikfar, Mohsen Khatibi, Akbar Abdollahi-Asl and Mohammad Abdollahi    

Abstract: Epidemiological data show that the most inpatient disease resulting in hospitalization in Iran is poisoning where drug poisoning is the second cause of mortality in hospitalized patients. There is no report on the use, availability and cost expenditure of antidotes in the country. Regarding the importance of this kind of information in health policy, we aimed to review accessibility and affordability of antidotes in Iran as a sample model. Demographic and epidemiologic data about antidotes and their impacts in economic situation of the country during 2004-2008 were extracted from Iranian drug affair's, drug selection committee, pharmaceuticals statistics, direct interview with stockholders and key opinion leaders in toxicology and World Health Organization (WHO) reports. Data were extracted and analyzed for demographic, economic and health information, availability and accessibility of antidotes and five-year cost-utilization trends of antidotes. As a developing country, Gross National Production (GNP) per capita in Iran is about 7000 $US. Gross national income per capita in Iran is 9,800 USA dollar (USD). Total expenditure on health per capita is 731 USD that is 7.8% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and total drug expenditure is 24000 billion Rials (10000 Rials≈1 USD). Iranian drug list (IDL) include most of antidotes, while 73% of them are registered and available in the market. Entire IDL includes 2230 medicines that 27 of them are antidote (1.1%). The volume of utilization of existing antidotes during 5 years indicate that 25% of them are almost expensive (more than 40000 Rials or 10 dollars) that is 1% of expenditure basket of Iran. All antidotes are under umbrella of insurance. Because of multi-purpose use of these drugs and high price of some of them, a real estimation of demand for good management of poisoning and pharmaceutical regulation and supply management is necessary for having a strategic depot. More feasible and reliable procurements, appropriate information and effective integration of health care services would have a good impact on poisoning management and policy making to better afford health cares in all countries like Iran. Effective impact of poisoning in economical and social concerns of the life necessitates implementation of stronger policies in clinical toxicology matters.

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