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International Journal of Pharmacology
Year: 2011  |  Volume: 7  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 446 - 454

Methanol Extract of the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn., Restores Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

A. Shirwaikar, Y. Kamariya, B. Patel, S. Nanda, V. Parmar and S. Khan    

Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn., on osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy in female albino rats at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg/day. Healthy female albino rats in the age group of 90 days were selected and randomized into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 was sham operated and served as control while all the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with an equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Group 3 was orally treated with standard Raloxifene (5.4 mg kg-1) whereas the methanol extract of Morinda citrifolia (500 and 750 mg kg-1) was administered to the groups 4 and 5. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters, showed that the methanol extract significantly reduced bone loss, as evidenced by a reduction in Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) and urine Hydroxyproline (Hp) levels while simultaneously increasing bone formation [high serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) levels], thereby restoring bone mineralization. The restoration of bone strength was confirmed by biomechanical parameters viz., the three point bending of tibia, load testing of femoral head and compression of IV lumbar vertebra and it was further endorsed by histopathological findings i.e., bone microarchitecture. The extract significantly increased the osteoblastic activity on one hand while on the other it retarded the osteoclastic function thereby contributing to a positive bone balance and hence enhanced mineralization.

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