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International Journal of Pharmacology
Year: 2006  |  Volume: 2  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 216 - 220

The in vitro Antibacterial Activity and Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Manihot esculenta var. Sri Pontian (Euphorbiacea) Extracts

Z.A. Zakaria, H.M. Khairi, M.N. Somchit, M.R. Sulaiman, A.M. Mat Jais, I. Reezal, N.N. Mat Zaid, S.N.Z. Abdul Wahab, N.S. Fadzil, M. Abdullah and C.A. Fatimah    

Abstract: To determine on the antibacterial activity of the leaves and acute toxicity level of the leaves, tender leaves and rhizomes of Manihot esculenta var. Sri Pontian extracts. The chloroform (CME1) and ethanol (EME1) leaves extracts of M. esculenta (25, 50 and 100% concentrations) were tested against a selected groups of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using the disc diffusion method. On the other hand, the chloroform and ethanol leaves (CME2 and EME2), as well as the tender young leaves (CME3 and EME3) and rhizomes (CME4 and EME4), extracts of M. esculenta, (concentration ranging from 200 to 2600 ppm) were tested for their chronic toxicity level using the brine shrimp bioassay. CME1 was found to give positive antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhi while EME1 was effective against P. aeroginosa, C. diphtheria and V. cholerae. The results also showed that among the chloroform extracts, CME4 (LC50) = 413.9±51.6) possessed significantly (p<0.05) high toxicity followed by CME3 (LC50 = 496.2±33.1) and CME2 (LC50 = 532.9±22.9) while among the ethanol extracts, EME3 (LC50 = 344.7±33.9) was significantly (p<0.05) more toxic followed by EME2 (LC50 = 534.3±81.5) and EME4 (LC50 = 609.6±74.8). Overall, EME3 and CME4 were highly toxic than their counterpart (CME3 and EME4), respectively, while CME2 and EME2 did no show any discrepancy in their LD50 value. M. esculenta possess an antibacterial property and low toxicity level.

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