A Population-based Study on Bone Mineral Density Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) in Postmenopausal Women in Jakarta, Indonesia
Ignatio Rika Haryono
Background and Objective: Osteoporosis is established using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Patients were usually referred for DEXA from practice room. However, in most developing countries people have limited access to DEXA leading to underreport of osteoporosis prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women using DEXA in a population-based study and to establish a correlation between BMD with some risk factors. Materials and Methods: Participants were postmenopausal women and referred from Posyandu. Anthropometric measurements were performed. DEXA was performed at the hip (total hip, femoral neck, trochanter and femoral shaft), distal radius and lumbar region (L1-L4). Participants were categorized according to body mass index (BMI) (normal if BMI <25 kg m2, overweight and obese if BMI >25kg m2) and to BMD (normal BMD if T-score>-1SD, low BMD if T-score<-1 SD). Pearsons or Spearman tests were applied to analyze correlation between variables. Results: A total of 60 postmenopausal women were participated. The results showed 17 (28.3%) had osteopenia and 33 (55%) had osteoporosis. Age, age at menopause and duration of menopause had the strongest negative correlation with the BMD of the distal radius (r = -0.582, -0.414, -0.497, respectively, p<0.01), whereas weight and BMI were positively correlated with the BMD of the trochanter (r = 0.437and 0.424, p<0.01). Conclusion: Population-based recruitment confirmed that osteoporosis was more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Further, the correlation and the strength of the correlation between BMD and associated risk factors is bone site specific.
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