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International Journal of Biological Chemistry
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 8  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 21 - 36

Protective Effect of L-carnitine on Metabolic Disorders, Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Status and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Insulin Resistance

Samy Ali Hussein, Omnia M. Abd El-Hamid and Haidy S. Hemdan    

Abstract: The high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycemia, alterations in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in rat tissues which Oxidative stress plays a vital role in pathology associated with insulin resistance. The present study was aimed to explore the effect of L-carnitine (CAR) on insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, antioxidant status and lipid metabolism in male rats fed with high fructose diet. Insulin resistance was induced by feeding high fructose diet (60 g/100 g). Sixty male albino rats were divided into four groups containing 15 rats each. Group I: (Control group) rats received the control diets. Group II: (fructose-fed group) rats received fructose-enriched diet (60 g/100 g diet). Group III: (fructose+CAR group) animals received high fructose diet and were administered CAR (300 mg kg-1 b.wt. day-1, orally). Group IV: (control+CAR group) rats received the control diet and were administered CAR. After 45 and 60 days of treatment blood samples and liver tissue were collected for determination of serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, pyruvate, lactate, leptin, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, sialic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide in addition to L-malondialdehyde (L-MDA). Moreover, antioxidant enzymes (SOD,CAT and GPx) in liver tissues were also determined. The obtained results revealed that, high fructose diet induce a significant increased in serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, pyruvate, lactate, lipten, TNF-α, IL-6, sialic acid, MDA and nitric oxide concentrations and decrease serum phospholipids with marked reduction in CAT, SOD and GpX activities in liver tissues compared to rats fed normal diet. L-carnitine treatment to high fructose fed rats reduced the effects of fructose and associated with significant normalization of all serum parameters level and was able to improve dyslipidemia, inflammation and insulin resistance, attenuated the increased MDA and enhanced antioxidant status in liver tissues. These results suggest that, L-carnitine is effective in improving the high fructose induced oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in male rats. Also, the administration of of L-carnitine to rats fed a high fructose diet prevents the development of oxidative stress and its associated complications include hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia.

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