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International Journal of Botany
Year: 2010  |  Volume: 6  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 136 - 143

Biochemical Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Plants: A Review

V. Mudgal, N. Madaan and A. Mudgal    

Abstract: Among abiotic stresses, high salinity stress is the most severe environmental stress, which impairs crop production on at least 20% of irrigated land worldwide. Understanding the mechanism of stress tolerance along with genes involved in stress signaling network is important for crop improvement. The growth reduction is recorded as a main morphological effect of salinity. This is due to many biochemical mechanisms of the plant. It is thought that excess of salts retards the absorption of water and reduce the growth through osmotic effect. Detrimental effects of salts on growth may be due to the toxicity of specific ions, elevation of osmotic pressure or the increase in alkalinity which may restrict the availability of water or influence cellular physiology and metabolic path ways. Salinity stress response is multigenic, as a number of processes involved in the tolerance mechanism. It affected various compatible solutes/osmolytes, polyamines, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant defense mechanism, ion transport and compartmentalization of injurious ions. Various strategies to improve salinity stress tolerance have been discussed in the present review.

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