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International Journal of Agricultural Research

Year: 2012  |  Volume: 7  |  Issue: 8  |  Page No.: 376 - 387

Protective Effects of Some Antioxidant Metals against Chromosomal Damage Induced by Cadmium in Vicia faba plants

Zeinab M. El-Ashry and Fawzia I. Mohamed

Abstract

Cadmium toxicity and the chemoprotective effects of calcium (Ca2+), zinc (Zn2+) and selenium (Se4+) at different concentrations (10-6-10-4 M) for 24 h. are studied on the root growth, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations and micro-nuclei of Vicia faba plants. The three concentrations of Cd2+ (10-5-10-3 M) induced inhibition of root-growth. The percentage of root-growth reached to 10.82, 6.03 and 4.01%, respectively. After treatment with all Cd+2 concentrations together with (10-6-10-4 M) of Ca2+, All concentrations of Ca2+ improved the percentage of root-growth. The effects of Se4+ and Zn2+ had less obvious than Ca2+. Three metals have a protective role against the genotoxicity of Cd2+ on root-growth especially at low concentration. A highly significant decrease in the percentage of MI appeared after treatment with the highest concentration of Cd2+(10-3 M) which reached 4.01% but after treatment with Cd+2 together with 10-6 M of Ca2+, Se4+ and Zn2+ reached to 11.30, 9.70 and 9.10%, respectively. Cd2+ induced a wide rang of mitotic abnormalities. All the tested concentrations of Cd2+, caused statistically significant percentage of chromosome aberrations. The percentage reached 25.50, 32.60 and 48.51% after treatment with 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M Cd2+, respectively compared with 0.81% for the control. After treatment Cd+2 concentrations (10-5-10-3 M) together with 10-6-10-4 M of Ca2+, Zn2+ and Se+4, respectively, the frequency of chromosomal aberration and micro-nuclei decreased. These treatments had strong antagonism effects. The degree of antimutagenic effects of Ca2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ against Cd2+ was related to their concentration. The present study cleared that the protective effects of Ca2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ against Cd2+. The degree of this protective effects was Ca2+>Se4+>Zn2+.

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