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Glycobiology
Year: 2010  |  Volume: 20  |  Issue: 6  |  Page No.: 651 - 660

The role of MRH domain-containing lectins in ERAD

N Hosokawa, Y Kamiya and K. Kato    

Abstract:

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system ensures that newly synthesized proteins in the early secretory pathway are in the correct conformation. Polypeptides that have failed to fold into native conformers are subsequently retrotranslocated and degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin–proteasome system, a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Most of the polypeptides that enter the ER are modified by the addition of N-linked oligosaccharides, and quality control of these glycoproteins is assisted by lectins that recognize specific sugar moieties and molecular chaperones that recognize unfolded proteins, resulting in proper protein folding and ERAD substrate selection. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yos9p, a lectin that contains a mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain, was identified as an important component of ERAD. Yos9p was shown to associate with the membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligase complex, Hrd1p–Hrd3p, and provide a proofreading mechanism for ERAD. Meanwhile, the function of the mammalian homologues of Yos9p, OS-9 and XTP3-B remained elusive until recently. Recent studies have determined that both OS-9 and XTP3-B are ER resident proteins that associate with the HRD1–SEL1L ubiquitin ligase complex and are important for the regulation of ERAD. Moreover, recent studies have identified the N-glycan species with which both yeast Yos9p and mammalian OS-9 associate as M7A, a Man7GlcNAc2 isomer that lacks the 1,2-linked terminal mannose from both the B and C branches. M7A has since been demonstrated to be a degradation signal in both yeast and mammals.

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