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Diabetic Medicine
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 31  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 84 - 91

Adolescents and young adults with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes demonstrate greater carotid intima-media thickness than those with Type 1 diabetes

W. Gu, Y. Huang, Y. Zhang, J. Hong, Y. Liu, W. Zhan, G. Ning and W. Wang    

Abstract:

Aim

To compare the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes ranging from 14 to 30 years of age.

Methods

Demographic, anthropometric and laboratory data were obtained from 404 adolescents and young adults (103 subjects with Type 1 diabetes, 94 with Type 2 diabetes, 153 obese subjects and 54 normal control subjects). Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed based on Doppler ultrasound examination and compared among the four groups.

Results

Our data showed significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes and obese subjects compared with the control subjects, with those in the group with Type 2 diabetes demonstrating the greatest change (P < 0.001). Age, BMI, percentage of fat, waist-hip ratio and total triglycerides were significantly correlated with both common and internal carotid intima-media thickness segments. From a stepwise multiple linear regression model, the independent determinants of common carotid intima-media thickness were age, BMI, HbA1c and HDL cholesterol (adjusted R2 = 0.152, P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex and HbA1c, the odds ratio for increased carotid intima-media thickness was 1.67 (95% CI 1.19-2.33, P = 0.003) for obese subjects, 2.38 (95% CI 1.59-9.47, P = 0.001) for subjects with Type 1 diabetes and 3.93 (95% CI 1.90-6.07, P = 0001) for subjects with Type 2 diabetes compared with the control subjects.

Conclusions

Compared with young control subjects, we found significant increases in carotid intima-media thickness in patients with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes, with patients with Type 2 diabetes showing greater carotid intima-media thickness. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, could cause vessel changes even in adolescents and young adults.

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