Methods Participants in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study with data available at the 1999-2000 baseline and the 2004-2005 follow-up were included (4870; 45% men). Television viewing time (h/week) was assessed by questionnaire. Fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin and 2-h plasma glucose were obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Beta-cell function and insulin resistance were ascertained using the homeostasis model assessment 2-calculator. Associations of change in television viewing time with changes in glucose homeostasis markers were examined using linear regression models [β-coefficients (95% CI)]. Adjustments included baseline measures of age, television viewing time and glycaemic marker, and baseline and 5-year change in diet quality, energy intake, physical activity and waist circumference.
Results For every 5-h per week increase in television viewing time from baseline to 5-year follow-up, changes in glucose homeostasis markers were observed: among women there was a significant increase in fasting plasma glucose [0.01 (0.00-0.02) mmol/l] insulin resistance [0.03 (0.01-0.05)] and insulin secretion [1.07 (0.02-2.12) %]; insulin levels increased [men: 1.20 (0.30-2.09); women: 1.06 (0.32-1.80) pmol/l]; in men, 2-h plasma glucose levels increased [0.06 (0.01-0.1) mmol/l].
Conclusion Five-year increases in television viewing time were associated adversely with changes in glucose homeostasis markers. These findings add to earlier cross-sectional evidence that television viewing time can be associated with biomarkers of diabetes risk.