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Clinical Chemistry

Year: 2010  |  Volume: 56  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 73 - 81

Synergy of Total PLAC4 RNA Concentration and Measurement of the RNA Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Allelic Ratio for the Noninvasive Prenatal Detection of Trisomy 21

N. B.Y Tsui, R Akolekar, R. W.K Chiu, K. C.K Chow, T. Y Leung, T. K Lau, K. H Nicolaides and Y.M. D. Lo

Abstract

Background: Maternal plasma mRNA encoded by the PLAC4 gene (placenta-specific 4), which is transcribed from chromosome 21 in placental cells, is a potential marker for the noninvasive assessment of chromosome 21 dosage in the fetus. We evaluated the diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of 2 trisomy 21–screening approaches that use maternal plasma PLAC4 mRNA.

Methods: We studied maternal plasma samples from 153 pregnant women carrying euploid and trisomy 21 fetuses. For the samples in which the fetuses were heterozygous for the studied PLAC4 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), we measured the ratio between 2 alleles of the SNP in maternal plasma PLAC4 mRNA (RNA-SNP) by mass spectrometric (MS) and digital PCR methods. For pregnancies involving fetuses homozygous for the SNP, we quantified the total PLAC4 mRNA concentration in maternal plasma by real-time PCR and digital PCR.

Results: For the RNA-SNP approach, we achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 40.2%–100%) and 89.7% (95% CI, 78.8%–96.1%), respectively, for both the MS and the digital PCR methods. For the mRNA-quantification approach, the areas under the ROC curves were 0.859 (95% CI, 0.741–0.903) and 0.833 (95% CI, 0.770–0.923) for plasma PLAC4 mRNA concentrations measured by the real-time PCR and the digital PCR methods, respectively.

Conclusions: For prenatal screening of trisomy 21, the quantification of the total PLAC4 mRNA concentration can be used in a synergistic manner with the RNA-SNP allelic ratio approach to increase the population coverage of cases in which diagnostic information can be obtained.

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