Periadventitial Adipose Tissue Plays a Critical Role in Vascular Remodeling
Rationale: Obesity is associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular complications. However, the molecular link between obesity and vascular disease is not fully understood. Most previous studies have focused on the association between cardiovascular disease and accumulation of visceral fat. Periadventitial fat is distributed ubiquitously around arteries throughout the body.
Objective: Here, we investigated the impact of obesity on inflammation in the periadventitial adipose tissue and on lesion formation after vascular injury.
Methods and Results: High-fat, high-sucrose feeding induced inflammatory changes and decreased adiponectin expression in the periadventitial adipose tissue, which was associated with enhanced neointima formation after endovascular injury. Removal of periadventitial fat markedly enhanced neointima formation after injury, which was attenuated by transplantation of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mice fed on regular chow. Adiponectin-deficient mice showed markedly enhanced lesion formation, which was reversed by local delivery, but not systemic administration, of recombinant adiponectin to the periadventitial area. The conditioned medium from subcutaneous fat attenuated increased cell number of smooth muscle cells in response to platelet derived growth factor-BB.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that periadventitial fat may protect against neointimal formation after angioplasty under physiological conditions and that inflammatory changes in the periadventitial fat may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease accelerated by obesity.