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Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention

Year: 2009  |  Volume: 18  |  Issue: 6  |  Page No.: 1730 - 1739

Intakes of Fruit, Vegetables, and Carotenoids and Renal Cell Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of 13 Prospective Studies

J. E Lee, S Mannisto, D Spiegelman, D. J Hunter, L Bernstein, P. A van den Brandt, J. E Buring, E Cho, D. R English, A Flood, J. L Freudenheim, G. G Giles, E Giovannucci, N Hakansson, P. L Horn Ross, E. J Jacobs, M. F Leitzmann, J. R Marshall, M. L McCullough, A. B Miller, T. E Rohan, J. A Ross, A Schatzkin, L. J Schouten, J Virtamo, A Wolk, S. M Zhang and S. A. Smith Warner


Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for ≥600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for ≥400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for -carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for β-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1730–9)

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