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Biotechnology
Year: 2009  |  Volume: 8  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 24 - 34

Genetic Diversity of Pistachio Tree using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Markers ISSR Supported by Morphological and Chemical Markers

K. Fares, F. Guasmi, L. Touil, T. Triki and A. Ferchichi    

Abstract: The identification and the characterization of some Pistachio cultivars trees in South of Tunisia revealed a remarkable diversity between different cultivars, thanks to molecular markers (ISSR) supported by morphological markers (length sheets, leaf area, length of fruit, forms of final leaflet, their length and by chemical markers (content of vitamins). For the whole of the studied cultivars, the length of fruits is between 16.3 and 20.4 cm, the length of the final leaflet is 5.88 to 8.42 cm its form oscillates from elliptic to round, the average leaf area varies between 17.13 to 34.05 cm2 in all varieties. The analysis of chemical variability allows to distinguish in different cultivars studied a variability on the level of the composition of vitamin B1, B2, B6 and VC. The content of vitamin B1 is going from 0 to 1 mg g-1 in the varieties Kermizi, Meknessy 1, Mumtez, Mateur 2 and Mateur 3 and 0.019 mg g-1 in Lybie rouge then the range of B2 is going from 0.001 mg g-1 at the variety Mateur 3, with 0.07 mg g-1 in Lybie rouge, the content of vitamin B6 is very variable from 0. 0016 mg g-1 at Mateur 3, with 0.01643 mg g-1 in Red Aleppo and the VC is going from 0.013 mg g-1 in Meknessy 1 to 0.09 mg g-1 in Lybie blanc. The PCR amplification of Pistachio varieties revealed a high percentage of the polymorphic fragments (26 fragments are polymorphs), the varieties Mumtez, El Guettar and Mateur 1 are characterized by a high percentage of the polymorphic locus (38.46%) whereas the varieties Lybie blanc, Kermizi, Lovy, Meknessy 1, Lybie rouge, Brise vent, Mateur 2, Mateur 3, Mateur 4, Meknessy 2, Kerman, Red Aleppo have an average polymorphism (between 26.92 and 34.61%). The variety Meknessy I (rate = 3.84%) and Lybie blanc (rate = 15.38%) have a low polymorphism. Several varieties have a coefficient of similarity (ds) close to 1 they are considered genetically very similar. Among these varieties Brise vent and Mateur 3 whose a coefficient of similarity equal to 0.667 (dg = 0.333), Lovy and Mumtez whose coefficient is equal to 0.632(dg = 0.368), Lybie rouge and El Guettar whose coefficient is equal to 0.632 (dg = 0.368), Kermezi and Kerman whose coefficient of similarity is equal to 0.750 (dg = 0.250), Meknessy 2 and Red Aleppo whose coefficient of similarity is about 0.857 (dg = 0.143). Certain varieties are considered genetically very distant between them, the genetic distance which separate them is large (dg = 1) it`s the case of the variety Mateur 4 with Meknessy1 (dg = 1) and Meknessy 1 with Mumtez and Mateur 3. Other varieties can be considered distant like Lybie Blanc with Brise vent and Mateur 3 (dg = 0.846), Meknessy 1 and El Guettar (dg = 0.82). The use of ISSR markers for amplification PCR of different Pistachio cultivars revealed a high percentage of the polymorphic fragments (26 bands).

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