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Year: 2008  |  Volume: 7  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 669 - 677

Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Laccase of Pycnoporus sanguineus and Toxicity Evaluation of Treated PAH

Umaiyal Munusamy, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Sekaran Muniandy, Noorlidah Abdullah, Ashok Pandey and E.B.G. Jones    

Abstract: Four strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus isolated from Thailand (KUM 60953), Shah Alam (KUM 60954), Endau Rompin (KUM 60955), Cherating (KUM 60956) and Gombak (KUM 60957) were grown on PDA plates. Laccase of P. sanguineus was produced using oil palm frond parenchyma tissue (OPFPt) in solid substrate fermentation (SSF). Strain KUM 60954 produced significant (p = 0) levels of laccase at 2.53 U mL-1 (76 U g-1) followed by KUM 60957 at 1.05 U mL-1 (32 U g-1), KUM 60956 at 0.55 U mL-1 (17 U g-1) and KUM 60955 at 0.46 U mL-1 (14 U g-1). Meanwhile, KUM 60953 (reference strain) from Thailand produced 2.44 U mL-1 of laccase (73 U g-1 of OPFPt). Biodegradation of a mixture of 10 ppm each of phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene by 30 U mL-1 of laccase in sodium citrate buffer pH 5 was studied. The reaction mixture was incubated at 40°C and was shaken at 80 rpm for 24 h. Laccase of KUM 60954 degrades 90% of phenanthrene, 37% of anthracene and 96% of pyrene. Meanwhile, laccase of KUM 60953 degrades 89% of phenanthrene, 43% of anthracene and 95% pyrene. Pyrene was rapidly biodegraded followed by phenanthrene and anthracene. However, a similar pattern of degradation was observed for both KUM 60953 and KUM 60954. Degraded PAH sample was further tested for toxicity using Artemia. The untreated PAH caused more than 50% of Artemia death while for the treated PAH no death was observed indicating that the toxicity level was reduced and possibly no any new toxic compound was produced during the degradation.

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