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Aquaculture Nutrition
Year: 2007  |  Volume: 13  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 291 - 297

Optimal dietary carbohydrate to lipid ratio for juvenile yellowfin seabream (Sparus latus)

Y.-H. HU, Y.-J. LIU, L.-X. TIAN, H.-J. YANG, G.-Y. LIANG and W. GAO    

Abstract: A growth experiment was conducted to determine the optimal carbohydrate-to-lipid (CHO: L) ratio for juvenile yellowfin seabream cultured in 340-L indoor recirculating tanks. Seven isonitrogenous (450 g kg−1 dietary protein) and isoenergetic (14.1 MJ kg−1) diets with increasing CHO: L ratios (0.03–5.09 g: g) were fed to triplicate groups of 30 fish with an initial weight of 4.91 g for 56 days. Fish were fed to satiation twice a day and the water temperature ranged between 28 and 31.7 °C during the experimental period. Survival was high in all the groups and was not affected by dietary treatments. Best weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were observed in fish fed diets with CHO: L ratios of 0.29 and 0.72, which were not significantly different from that of 0.03, 1.26 and 1.92, but apparently higher than that of 3.22 and 5.09. Feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and protein production value (PPV) followed the same general pattern as WG and SGR. Highest level of energy production value (EPV) was found in fish fed diets with CHO: L ratio of 0.72. Proximate compositions of fish whole body and tissues were markedly affected by dietary CHO: L ratios. Whole body, muscle and liver lipid increased as CHO: L ratios decreased, whereas moisture contents were reduced. Dietary CHO: L ratios had no significant effect on protein content in whole body and muscle. Plasma total cholesterol levels of fish fed diets with CHO: L ratios less than 0.72 were significantly higher than those of the other groups. Triacylglyceride levels decreased linearly as dietary CHO: L ratios increased. Viscerosomatic index (VSI) significantly increased as dietary CHO: L ratios decreased. Intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPF) of fish fed diets with CHO: L ratios less than 1.92 were significantly higher than those fed CHO: L ratios of 3.22 and 5.09. Hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not vary between the test diets. Based on second-order polynomial regression analysis of WG against dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels, 84.1 g kg−1 of carbohydrate and 136.3 g kg−1 of lipid, corresponding to a CHO: L ratio of 0.62, in a diet holding 450 g kg−1 of crude protein and 14 KJ g−1 of metabolizable energy, proved to be optimal for juvenile yellowfin seabream.

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