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Asian Journal of Plant Sciences
Year: 2021  |  Volume: 20  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 291 - 299

Antidiabetic Activity, Phytochemical and Proximate Compositions of Different Extracts of Tephrosia bracteolata Leaves

Precious Adejoh Idakwoji, Parker Elijah Joshua, Rita Onyekachukwu Asomadu, Obioma Uzoma Njoku and Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo    

Abstract: Background and Objective: Tephrosia bracteolata is a medicinal plant used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In this study, the anti-diabetic potentials, phytochemical and proximate composition of various extracts of Tephrosia bracteolata leaves were investigated. Materials and Methods: Extraction of pulverized leaves of Tephrosia bracteolata was done using water, ethanol, chloroform/methanol (2:1). The extracts were subjected to phytochemical and proximate analyses and acute toxicity studies using standard methods. The extracts were also studied for anti-diabetic activity using alloxan (150 mg kg–1 i.p) model of diabetes. The extracts were administered to diabetic rats at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg kg–1 p.o for 28 days during which Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), food/water intake and bodyweight were monitored as indices of anti-diabetic activity. Results: Phenols, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and flavonoids were present in varying proportions in the extracts. Varying proportions of the proximate constituents were also observed. An acute toxicity study revealed that the extracts were non-toxic up to a dose of 5000 mg kg–1. The extracts produced significant (p<0.05) reduction in FBS, water and food intake, but no significant (p>0.05) effect on the body weight of the treated rats in comparison with the diabetic control. The ethanol extract produced a significantly (p<0.05) higher anti-diabetic effect than the other extracts. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of T. bracteolata leaves was observed to possess potent anti-diabetic effect compared to other extracts, indicating the relevance of ethanol for the extraction of the anti-diabetic principles in T. bracteolata leaves.

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