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American Journal of Plant Physiology
Year: 2019  |  Volume: 14  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 1 - 8

Competitive Effect of Prominent Weeds on Cowpea Cultivar in a Typical Ultisol

Edokpolor Osazee Ohanmu and Beckley Ikhajiagbe    

Abstract: Background and Objective: Weeds reduced cowpea yield and quality by competing for light, water and nutrients. Hence identifying a cowpea cultivar that completes well against weeds will go a long way in increasing food sustain ability and security. Therefore, this study investigated the competition between cowpea (TVU-180) and selected weeds prominent in a typical ultisol. Materials and Methods: The study involved 10 treatments and a control. Each treatment included three seeds of the cowpea sowed alongside the selected weeds, Chrysopogon aciculatus (WA), Eleusine indica (WB), Cynodon dactylon (WC), Axonopus compressus (WD), Panicumn maximum (WE), Setaria bartata (WF), Sporobolus pyramidalis (WG), Commelina benghalensis (WH), Paspalum vaginatum (WI), a combination of the weeds (WJ) and the control arranged in a randomized block design (RBD) and replicated thrice. Results: The result of the study showed that there were significant weed competitive effect on the cowpea parameters examined. The plant height and number of leaflet of cowpea in WE, WA and WJ treatments were significantly increased over the control. No yield parameters were recorded in the associated weed treatments except in WA, WI and the control. However, weed competitiveness significantly reduced the bean yield of the cowpea in the WI and WA treatments. Weed competitiveness resulted in the lowest plant dry weight of the TVu-180 in WB when compared with control. There was variation in the light harvesting pigments with WH, WI and WB having a higher chlorophyll-a/b, carotenoid and lycopene content than the control. The WA and the control had the highest soil total N, P and K content. Conclusion: The cowpea TVu-180 variety was more promising for cultivation in a farm infested with Chrysopogon aciculatus and Paspalum vaginatum weeds without significant effects in the yield and quality of the plant.

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