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American Journal of Plant Physiology
Year: 2017  |  Volume: 12  |  Issue: 2  |  Page No.: 58 - 70

Cadmium Phytoextraction and Induced Antioxidant Gene Response in Moringa oleifera Lam.

Shaili Yadav and Jyoti Srivastava    

Abstract: Background and Objectives: Heavy metal contamination is the major problem spreading worldwide as non biodegradable pollutant. The toxicity of metals creates major threat for primary and secondary consumer in environment and reaches to the top level consumers in the ecosystem through food chain. Therefore, present study was focused on cadmium uptake from cadmium chloride (CdCl2) contaminated soil using Moringa oleifera Lam. plant which is known for hyperaccumulation of heavy metals. Effects of various concentrations of CdCl2 on plant morphology, biochemical and molecular parameters were determined in Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera ). Materials and Methods: Three M. oleifera seeds/pot containing 1 kg sterilized soil were sown and placed under controlled photoperiod. Ten days old germinating seedlings were used to treat with different Cd concentrations. After treatment, the seedlings were used to analyze plant growth and morphology, bioconstituents and antioxidant genes (CAT and APX) expression at 10, 20 and 30 days. Data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance by SPSS. Results: This study showed maximum Cd uptake 168.563 mg kg–1 soil in 30 days old plant roots than 19.951 mg kg–1 Cd soil in shoots at 5 mM Cd concentration. Protein isolated from leaves of treated seedlings showed variation in differential pattern of polypeptides compared to protein in control leaves. High secretion of metallothioneins proteins, proline and polyphenol content induced with increasing metal concentrations (1 mM <2 mM <3 mM <5 mM). In addition Cd induced significant increase in antioxidant enzymes activity: APX (EC 1.11.11), CAT (EC and GR (EC with increasing metal level. Higher expression of CAT and APX gene transcripts upon increasing metal exposure provides more evidence for potential of Cd accumulation in M. oleifera . Conclusion: Retention of high level of Cd in roots indicates that M. oleifera has potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals by rhizofiltration.

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