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American Journal of Food Technology
Year: 2011  |  Volume: 6  |  Issue: 5  |  Page No.: 404 - 412

Effects of Malting and Lactic Fermentation on Some Chemical and Functional Properties of Maize (Zea mays)

D.I. Gernah, C.C. Ariahu and E.K. Ingbian    

Abstract: The effects of malting and fermentation on some chemical and functional properties of maize grains were determined. White maize kernels (variety TZW, 2005 harvest) were germinated over a period of 96 h and flours of 72 h germinated grains were fermented by back-slopping. Analysis of the selected physico-chemical parameters of the resulting samples were carried out using standard analytical methods. Germination of grains resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in crude protein, total soluble sugars and reducing sugars up to 72 h and ash content. Conversely, there was significant decrease (p<0.05) in crude fat and carbohydrates during this period. After 72 h, protein and crude fibre content reduced slightly, while carbohydrate, crude fat and ash increased though not significantly (p>0.05). There was also a significant decrease (p<0.05) in pH (6.80-5.94) as germination progressed while there was a gradual increase in TTA which was not significant (p>0.05). Accelerated natural fermentation of the maize flour also showed a similar trend for all the parameters. Malting and fermentation gave rise to decrease in packed bulk density (1.17-0.54 g mL-1) swelling index (6.47-3.46 mL g-1) and viscosity (343.33-288.26 cP) while increasing the water absorption capacity (3.70-3.92 g g-1) and reconstitution index (4.82-6.40 mL g-1). There was also a significant reduction in tannin content (2.62-0.42 g/100 g), phytates (2.30-0.84 g/100 g), oxalates (2.32-0.34 g/100 g), cyanide content (2.20-0.42 mg/100 g) and fibre (2.12-1.11 g/100 g).

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