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American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Year: 2009  |  Volume: 2  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 611 - 619

Vision-Based Obstacle Avoidance of Mobile Robot UsingQuantized Spatial Model

Salaheddin Odeh, Rasha Faqeh, Laila Abu Eid and Nihal Shamasneh    

Abstract: Problem statement: Problem of moving a robot through unknown environment hasattracted much attention over past two decades. Such problems have several difficulties andcomplexities that are unobserved, besides the ambiguity of how this can be achieved since a robot mayencounter obstacles of all forms that must be bypassed in an intelligent manner. This research had beenaimed to develop a system that was able to detect obstacles in a mobile robot's path using a singlecamera as only sensory input and to achieve the target point in optimized manner. For this reason,algorithm which took total path length and safety into account was developed.
Approach: To controlmovement of robot from a starting to a target point inside the site where obstacles can obstruct the wayof robot, real-time software-specially tailored for this purpose-was necessary to develop. To analyzeand to process scene images captured by a (vision) camera, camera was installed at the top over thecenter of site in a way that it covered whole site through which sufficient image information could bedelivered. From sequentially captured images that was manipulated through image processing andcomputer vision, the system built a representative site model, whose ingredients were gridded squaresas a result of quantized spatial plane of site and then it began planning the desired routing path.
Results: For building a robot path, less computing effort was necessary because grid information wasmuch easier to deal with than pixels and only a minimum amount of stored data of symbolic site modelfrom current and previous state was necessary.
Conclusion: Using a quantized spatial domain, a lesscomputational effort was necessary to control movement of robot with the ability of obstacle detectionand avoidance.

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