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American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 4  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 85 - 89

Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Stem Bark Extracts of Psidium guajava

A. Abdulhamid, I.M. Fakai, I. Sani, A.U. Argungu and F. Bello    

Abstract: To establish the scientific basis for the use of Psidium guajava in traditional medicinal practices in Northern Nigeria, the ethanolic and aqueous stem bark extracts of Psidium guajava were screened for the presence of some phytochemicals and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The phytochemicals were analyzed using the standard methods of phytochemical analysis, while the antibacterial activities were analysed using agar well diffusion method. The results indicated presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and cardiac glycosides in the two extracts. The results revealed that the two extracts possess wider antimicrobial activities against the tested organisms at a concentration of 100 mg mL-1 which compares favourably with the standard antibiotic streptomycin as positive control. However, ethanolic extract demonstrated a better activity than the aqueous extract with the most susceptible organism being S. Faecalis and the least activity was reported for Salmonella spp. Both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. guajava may provide a target for drug discovery.

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