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American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 4  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 66 - 72

Safety and Standardization Indices on Selected Anti-malarial Herbs: Effect on Haematology and Serum Enzyme Levels

E.V. Ikpeme, U.B. Ekaluo, Y.B. Ibiang, O.U. Udensi and P.B. Ekpo    

Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic stem bark extract of Nauclea latifolia, Cylicodiscus gabunensis and Araliopsis souyauxii; three plants used locally as anti-malarials, on haematology and serum enzyme levels in albino rats. Employing a 3x3 factorial arrangement, thirty six male albino rats were randomly assigned into nine groups of four rats each, treated daily with ethanol extract corresponding to 0, 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the three plants. Treatment was administered orally for two months, after which the animals were sacrificed for estimation of study parameters. All data were subjected to analysis of variance, with conclusions drawn at 5% probability level. Results obtained showed that while N. latifolia and A. souyauxii gave no evidence of potential haemo-toxicity, C. gabunensis at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. significantly reduced haemoglobin content and packed cell volume of the animals. Although alanine transaminase revealed no significant differences, all plants induced significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase levels at both 125 and 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Aspartate transaminase was also significantly elevated in all plant groups at 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. Overall, the potential toxic effect of these anti-malarial herbs was observed to be more on serum enzyme levels, than on haematology. In quest for standardized anti-malarial preparations from these herbs, we recommend a dose no more than 225 mg kg-1 b.wt. for N. latifolia and A. souyauxii and 125 mg kg-1 b.wt. for C. gabunensis.

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