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Asian Journal of Crop Science
Year: 2018  |  Volume: 10  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 40 - 47

Effect of Salinity Stress and Soil Types on Growth, Photosynthetic Pigments and Essential Oil of Artemisia annua L.

EL-Saady Mohamed Badawy, Khalid Ali Khalid, Amaal Abd-Elkhalek Mohamed Heikal and Mohammad Mahmoud Nagdy    

Abstract: Background and Objective: Artemisia annua L. (A. annua) has various biological activities such as anti-malarial, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-allergenic. Salt stress and soil types (ST) are the most important conditions, which have a very high impact on yield and active principals of medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline irrigation water (SIW), ST and their interactions on growth, yield, photosynthetic pigments (PP) and essential oil (EO) composition of A. annua. Materials and Methods: Artemisia annua L. plants were subjected to different levels (0.0, 1.6, 3.2, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.9 dS m–1) of SIW under two ST [clay (CLS) and sandy loam (SALS)]. Vegetative growth characters (VGC) [Plant height, PH (cm/plant), branch number, BN (per plant], fresh mass (FM) (g/plant) and dry mass (DM) (g/plant)], PP [Chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b and total carotenoids (TC)] and EO composition were evaluated. Randomized Complete block design (RCBD) was used and the averages of data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results: The highest values (112.75, 90.00; 32.42, 36.17; 83.15, 106.86; 45.43, 64.85) of VGC for various ST were recorded with control treatments. CLS recorded the greatest values of BN (31.13/plant), FM (79.95 g/plant) and DM (46.77 g/plant) while the highest value of PH (95.69 cm) was recorded under SALS. SALS produced higher values of Chla or Chlb (3.21 and 1.58) than CLS (3.09 and 1.47) while CLS recoded higher accumulation of TC (3.01) than SALS soil (3.00). The highest values (1.41 and 0.87%) of EO were produced under 1.6, 3.2 and 4.7 dS m–1 treatments at both ST. The 4.7 dS m–1 treatment reported the highest values (0.42 or 0.49 g/plant) of EO yield. 7.9 and 5.3 dS m–1 treatments recorded the highest values of major components [camphor (38.67 and 38.52%) and trans caryophyllene (26.67 and 36.26)] under the both soils, on the other hand, different changes were found in monoterpene hydrocarbons (MCH), oxygenated monoterpenes (MCHO), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (SCH) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (SCHO). Conclusion: Different variations were found in VGC, PP and EO composition of A. annua plant under SIW, ST and their interactions.

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