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Asian Journal of Biological Sciences
Year: 2019  |  Volume: 12  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 73 - 80

Competition Between Cowpea (TVU-180) and Selected Local Grasses Abundant in a Typical Ultisol in Benin City, Nigeria

Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Edokpolor Osazee Ohanmu and Mary Osasere Iguobaro    

Abstract: Background and Objective: The problem caused by weeds are enormous and constitute a major constraint to crop production globally. Over the years, weed has contributed to the reducing in cowpea productivity either by releasing allelopathic compounds, providing a conducive environment for pest or competing for available soil nutrients. Therefore, the study examined the competition between the cowpea variety (TVu-180) and selected local weeds abundant in a typical ultisol in Benin city, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: There were 10 treatments and a control, namely; Chrysopogon aciculatus (WA), Eleusine indica (WB), Cynodon dactylon (WC), Axonopus compressus (WD), Panicumn maximum (WE), Setaria bartata (WF), Sporobolus pyramidalis (WG), Commelina benghalensis (WH), Paspalum vaginatum (WI), while WJ was a combination of all the weeds and control (CTR). Three seeds of TVu-180 was sown into each bowl per-treatments, laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Results: From the results, the associated weeds delayed the first day of emergence in TVu-180 variety, however, there was no significant difference between the treatments and control. The emergent height of TVu-180 in WC, WE and WF were significantly higher than the TVu-180 variety in control. Weeds competitiveness with the TVu-180 variety resulted in a highly significant decrease in the plants’ dry weight either singly or holistically when compared with the control. The shoot length, stem width and leaflet area of the TVu-180 variety in WA were higher than those in the control. However, the no. of leaves were reduced in all treatments, there was no significant difference in between the TVu-180 variety in the WA treatment and control. Weed competitiveness resulted in the highest percentage of foliar foraging, chlorosis and necrosis in TVu-180 variety of WG and WC, respectively. From the regression plot, there was an inverse relationship between foliar chlorosis and percentage N, P and K in the soil while the correlation showed a significant positive relationship between foliar foraging and foliar chlorosis and necrosis respectively. Conclusion: Weed competitiveness did not affect the emergence performance of the Tvu-180 variety, however, the variety was morphologically susceptible with a significant reduction in dry weight matter.

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