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Asian Journal of Biological Sciences
Year: 2011  |  Volume: 4  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 53 - 61

Bioavailability of Some Heavy Metals in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils Remediated with Pleurotus tuber-regium Fr. Singer

E.M. Ogbo and J.A. Okhuoya    

Abstract: The effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium on the bioavailability of metallic elements in crude oil contaminated soils was investigated. The fungus was grown in crude oil contaminated soils amended with sawdust, shredded banana leaf blades, NPK-nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and poultry litter. The soils were analyzed for heavy metal content; total and exchangeable (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg and As). The mushroom caused dissolution of the metallic elements analyzed for, increasing concentration of heavy metals in their bio-available states. The addition of cellulosic wastes and fertilizers to crude oil contaminated soils affected the ability of the fungus to release metals from their bound states. The substrates with poultry litter recorded the highest bioavailability factor and control soils that had no fungal treatment recorded the least. Metals like nickel and iron recorded low bioavailability factors both in crude oil contaminated soils without and with fungal treatment. Other metals like manganese and cobalt recorded high bioavailability factors in soils with or without the mushroom. In conclusion the growth of the fungus Pleurotus tuber-regium in crude oil contaminated soil caused the release of metals into their bio-available states. The solubilization of metals by the fungus was affected by substrate composition with poultry litter having the highest impact on solubility of metals. The fungus can be used for heavy metal harvesting of some metals from contaminated sites. Pleurotus tuber-regium has the potential of increasing metal toxicity in soils by increasing the bioavailability of some metals needed in trace quantities.

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