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Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

Year: 2015  |  Volume: 10  |  Issue: 9  |  Page No.: 518 - 526

Nanotechnological Approaches for the Detection of Mycobacteria with Special References to Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP)

B.J. Stephen, S.V. Singh, Manali Datta, Neelam Jain, Sujata Jayaraman, K.K. Chaubey, S. Gupta, Manju Singh, G.K. Aseri, Neeraj Khare, Parul Yadav, Kuldeep Dhama and J.S. Sohal

Abstract

Tuberculosis, an infectious bacterial disease that affects the lungs is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). It is the second most infectious disease after AIDS, which can affect both animals and humans. Johne’s Disease (JD) or paratuberculosis caused by in intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an incurable wasting disease known to affect a large number of domestic animals and poses serious threat to livestock industries through huge economic losses. Conventional diagnostic methods like enzyme linked immunosorbat assay (ELISA), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), cultural isolation are identification for use in MAP detection while sputum smear microscopy and PCR techniques remain the gold standards for TB detection despite advancement in pathogen detection most of these diagnostic methods are time consuming and have low efficacy and this become a heavy burden to developing and underdeveloped countries. When nanoscale particles are used as tags or labels, measuring the activity or presence of an analyte becomes faster, flexible and highly sensitive. These advantages nanomaterials possess, research have now focused their attention to nanotechnology based detection. Though research have shown these test to be more sensitive, less laboratorious and less time consuming, more needs to be done to introduce point of care diagnostics into the global market. This review highlights the prospects of nanotechnology based diagnostic tests as valuable alternative for rapid detection of this economically important pathogen with high accuracy and precision.

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