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Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 9  |  Issue: 10  |  Page No.: 599 - 609

Anthrax Toxin Receptors, Functions and their Possible Use in Therapeutics: A Review

Rekha Khandia, Sandeep Bhatia, Kh. Victoria Chanu, Richa Sood and Kuldeep Dhama    

Abstract: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease and its lethality is due to two secreted exotoxins; lethal toxin and edema toxin. The receptor for anthrax toxin is called Anthrax Toxin Receptor (ATR). Two distinct cellular Anthrax toxin receptors, ANTXR1 (also known as tumour endothelial marker 8, TEM8) and ANTXR2 (also known as capillary morphogenesis protein 2, CMG2) have been identified. TEM8 and CMG2 both are ubiquitous in nature. Apart from their function as anthrax toxin receptor, their ubiquitous presence is suggestive of their physiological role. TEM8 is preferentially expressed in blood vessel of tumours and in vasculature, indicating its probable role during angiogenesis and regulation of neovasculature. CMG2 is present in capillary cells and is associated with capillary morphogenesis. Both the TEM8 and CMG2 are present in different isoforms, share homology in amino acid residues and apart from their role in angiogenesis regulation, are also involved in interaction with extracellular matrix. Mutation in TEM8 result in a condition appeared to alter physical characters in form of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia and progressive visual impairment known as GAPO syndrome. Mutation in CMG2 result in autosomal recessive disorder in humans called Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome (HFS) and Infantile Systemic Hyalinosis (ISH). Because of the role in physiological functions and participation as toxin receptor, these receptors could be target for several curative therapies both for the anthrax disease as well as for receptor associated physiological disorders. This review presents a detailed insight into isoforms, functions, diseases and therapeutic implications of anthrax toxin receptors.

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