Anthrax Toxin Receptors, Functions and their Possible Use in Therapeutics:
Kh. Victoria Chanu,
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease and its lethality is due to two secreted exotoxins;
lethal toxin and edema toxin. The receptor for anthrax toxin is called Anthrax
Toxin Receptor (ATR). Two distinct cellular Anthrax toxin receptors, ANTXR1
(also known as tumour endothelial marker 8, TEM8) and ANTXR2 (also known as
capillary morphogenesis protein 2, CMG2) have been identified. TEM8 and CMG2
both are ubiquitous in nature. Apart from their function as anthrax toxin receptor,
their ubiquitous presence is suggestive of their physiological role. TEM8 is
preferentially expressed in blood vessel of tumours and in vasculature, indicating
its probable role during angiogenesis and regulation of neovasculature. CMG2
is present in capillary cells and is associated with capillary morphogenesis.
Both the TEM8 and CMG2 are present in different isoforms, share homology in
amino acid residues and apart from their role in angiogenesis regulation, are
also involved in interaction with extracellular matrix. Mutation in TEM8 result
in a condition appeared to alter physical characters in form of growth retardation,
alopecia, pseudoanodontia and progressive visual impairment known as GAPO syndrome.
Mutation in CMG2 result in autosomal recessive disorder in humans called Hyaline
Fibromatosis Syndrome (HFS) and Infantile Systemic Hyalinosis (ISH). Because
of the role in physiological functions and participation as toxin receptor,
these receptors could be target for several curative therapies both for the
anthrax disease as well as for receptor associated physiological disorders.
This review presents a detailed insight into isoforms, functions, diseases and
therapeutic implications of anthrax toxin receptors.
Cited References Fulltext