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Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 9  |  Issue: 9  |  Page No.: 593 - 598

Comparison of Single Intradermal Test, Gamma Interferon Assay and Indirect ELISA for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in a Dairy Farm

D. Neeraja, B.M. Veeregowda, M. Sobha Rani, D. Rathnamma, R. Bhaskaran, G. Leena, S.H. Somshekhar, M. Saminathan, K. Dhama and S. Chakraborty    

Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis which belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), is a globally distributed zoonotic disease in cattle. The present study was conducted in a dairy herd with the history of prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. Two Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI) based tests, Single Intradermal Test (SID), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) assay and a serological test (enzyme linked immunosorbant assay, ELISA) were employed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in 45 animals. Of these, 8 (17.77%) were positive by SID test, 10 (22.22%) by interferon gamma assay and none of the animals were found positive by ELISA. Both the CMI tests performed were found better than the antibody detection. Between the CMI tests, IFN-γ assay showed better sensitivity than the SID test; combination of tests showed better detection of the bTB infection in animals. ELISA results indicated that animals were still in progressive stages of infection and the sensitivity of the tests depends on the stage of infection in the study subjects. As a whole, 26.67% of the animals tested in the farm were found to be positive and/or reactors to tuberculosis. It indicates that both the CMI tests were better than those targeting antibody detection. ELISA did not detect even a single animal as positive. These results indicate that no single test is able to detect all the infected animals and also not having 100 % sensitivity and specificity. So combination of tests always can be better employed for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

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