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Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances
Year: 2014  |  Volume: 9  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 190 - 201

Toroviruses Affecting Animals and Humans: A Review

K. Dhama, R.V.S. Pawaiya, S. Chakraborty, R. Tiwari and A.K. Verma    

Abstract: Toroviruses are responsible for causing gastroenteritis in animals and humans. These are enveloped viruses with non-segmented and positive-sense (single stranded) RNA genome of 20 to 25 kilobases, pleomorphic and are associated with diarrhea in cattle, sheep, goat, pig and other animals and also in human beings. Morphological appearance of viruses is spherical/oval, elongated or kidney shaped. These show Torovirus-like (tubular and torus nucleocapsid in the cytoplasm of infected cells) appearance under the electron microscope and are approximately 100-140 nm in diameter, surrounded by club-shaped projections of 15-20 nm in length. Clinical signs of the disease are pyrexia, diarrhoea, dehydration, lethargy and depression in calves as well adults. In calves, the virus may lead to anorexia, mucoid faeces and neurological signs like generalised weakness, paralysis, inability to stand along with trembling and sudden death. In faecal samples, these can be identified by electron microscopy. Immunological tests Include Immuno-electron Microscopy (IEM), Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI), Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and southern blot. The molecular assays are reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nested-RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR. Combined use of ELISA and RT-PCR are considered is a practical approach for epidemiological studies of bovine torovirus. At present, no vaccine is available for torovirus. The only control measures available are good hygiene and sanitary conditions along with isolation of infected animals. The present review highlights the salient features of the torovirus, their epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and suitable prevention and control measures to be adopted.

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