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Asian Journal of Applied Sciences
Year: 2019  |  Volume: 12  |  Issue: 1  |  Page No.: 37 - 44

Investigation of Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Nigerian Nasal Snuff in Wistar Albino Rats

Shaayau Shehu and Mohammed Yusuf Yabagi    

Abstract: Background and Objective: The use of dry nasal snuff is growing rapidly and is alarmingly becoming prevalent among different age groups in both rural and urban populations of Nigeria based on certain ethnocultural believes that were not verified scientifically. This study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of the local nasal snuff in wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats of both sexes used in the study were randomly divided into five groups of four animals each. Group A served as control, receiving only distilled water and food, while experimental groups (B-E) were orally administered graded doses of the extract at 7.60, 14.80, 22.00 and 29.05 mg kg–1 b.wt., representing 20, 40, 60 and 80% of the lethal dose (LD50), respectively, once daily using intubation cannula, for 28 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 29th day, after an overnight fast, blood samples collected for biochemical analysis, livers and kidneys collected for histopathological examination. Results: Acute toxicity study revealed that the aqueous extract of the dry snuff has LD50 >50 mg kg–1 b.wt., of the rats. There was progressive non-significant (p<0.05) increase in the body weights of the animals in all the groups. In the liver function tests, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the activities of enzymes, Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in the treated groups. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in groups D and E compared with the control. For renal function indices, significant (p<0.05) decrease and increase were observed in urea and creatinine levels, respectively in the experimental group E. There was however, no significant (p<0.05)difference in the levels of electrolytes, sodium, potassium and chloride compared to the control. Significant(p<0.05) decrease in the levels of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was equally observed. Histopathological analysis showed degenerative changes in the liver but not the kidney tissues. Conclusion: These findings suggest that chronic consumption of high sub-chronic doses of the nasal snuff may cause hepato- and renotoxicity as well as induces an oxidative stress in the test animals.

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