Holistic Views of Knowledge Management Models
The problem and the solution. Based on a newly developed holistic theory of knowledge and learning, this article critically evaluates selected models of knowledge management (KM) and proposes a holistic KM model. Most existing KM models tend to narrowly define knowledge from conceptual and perceptual perspectives and fail to recognize affectual knowledge such as values and visions. Furthermore, most models view KM as a linear or cyclical process and thus fail to identify the multidimensional nature of the knowledge dynamics between individuals and organizations. Implications of the holistic model for human resource development are discussed.