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Circulation: Heart Failure
Year: 2009  |  Volume: 2  |  Issue: 3  |  Page No.: 209 - 216

Predictors of Heart Failure in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A PEACE Study

E. F Lewis, S. D Solomon, K. A Jablonski, M. M Rice, F Clemenza, J Hsia, A. P Maggioni, M Zabalgoitia, T Huynh, T. E Cuddy, B. J Gersh, J Rouleau, E Braunwald, M. A Pfeffer and on behalf of the PEACE Investigators    

Abstract:

Background— Heart failure (HF) is a disease commonly associated with coronary artery disease. Most risk models for HF development have focused on patients with acute myocardial infarction. The Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population enabled the development of a risk model to predict HF in patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction.

Methods and Results— In the 8290, Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition patients without preexisting HF, new-onset HF hospitalizations, and fatal HF were assessed over a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Covariates were evaluated and maintained in the Cox regression multivariable model using backward selection if P<0.05. A risk score was developed and converted to an integer-based scoring system. Among the Prevention of Events with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition population (age, 64±8; female, 18%; prior myocardial infarction, 55%), there were 268 cases of fatal and nonfatal HF. Twelve characteristics were associated with increased risk of HF along with several baseline medications, including older age, history of hypertension, and diabetes. Randomization to trandolapril independently reduced the risk of HF. There was no interaction between trandolapril treatment and other risk factors for HF. The risk score (range, 0 to 21) demonstrated excellent discriminatory power (c-statistic 0.80). Risk of HF ranged from 1.75% in patients with a risk score of 0% to 33% in patients with risk score ≥16.

Conclusion— Among patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved ejection fraction, traditional and newer factors were independently associated with increased risk of HF. Trandolopril decreased the risk of HF in these patients with preserved ejection fraction.

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