Abstract: The present study attempts to examine the scenario of cattle genetic resources, their productive and reproductive performances and their conservation in Bangladesh. Cattle, among other livestock species available in Bangladesh are the most versatile component in relation to existing integrated agricultural farming system. Nearly 24.5 million heads of cattle are distributed throughout the country. About 85% of cattle are indigenous in origin and some types of them, like Red Chittagong, Pabna, North Bengal Grey and Munshiganj are far better producer than other in the existing low input management system. With rapid expansion of crossbreeding and urbanization, the indigenous cattle genetic resources of Bangladesh are under threat of extinction. Conservation of promising indigenous cattle genetic resources through utilization following pure breeding program and farmer managed in situ approaches may be an appropriate approach for cattle development and rural livelihood enhancement in Bangladesh. This review has tried to unearth the present scenario of cattle production, their distribution pattern, their productive and reproductive performances and their conservation in Bangladesh. This study has also discusses the strategy to meet the public priorities such as, food security, poverty reduction and employment generation through exploration of both native and as well as, where essential, exotic breeds in sustainable manner.