The use of natural products as medicinal agents presumably predates the earliest recorded history. Bauhinia purpurea is a species of flowering plant is used in several traditional medicine systems to cure various diseases. This plant has been known to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal, anticancerous, nephroprotective and thyroid hormone regulating activity. A wide range of chemical compounds including 5,6-Dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone 6-O- β D xylopyrano-Side, bis [3,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7,8-furano-5,6-mono-methylalloxy]-5-C-5-biflavonyl and (4-hydroxy-7-methyl 3-C-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-5-C-5-(4-hydroxy-7- methyl-3-C-α-D-glucopyranosyl) bioflavonoid, bibenzyls, dibenzooxepins, mixture of phytol fatty esters, lutein, β-sitosterol, isoquercitin and astragalin etc. The present review discusses phyto-chemistry, pharmacology, medicinal properties and biological activity of B. purpurea and its usage in different ailments.